Fund Goal and Approach
The fund seeks long-term capital growth. To pursue its goal, the fund normally invests at least 80% of its net assets, plus any borrowings for investment purposes, in the stocks of companies included in the S&P Midcap 400 Index or the Russell Midcap Index. The S&P Midcap 400 Index and the Russell Midcap Index are unmanaged indexes designed to measure the performance of the midcap segment of the U.S. stock market. The fund invests principally in common stocks, but the fund's equity investments may also include preferred stocks, convertible securities of U.S. and foreign issuers, including those purchased in initial public offerings (IPOs), and securities issued by real estate investment trusts (REITS). REITS are pooled investment vehicles that invest principally in income┐producing real estate or loans related to real estate.
The fund's portfolio managers select stocks through a "bottom-up," structured approach that seeks to identify undervalued securities using a quantitative screening process. This process is driven by a proprietary quantitative model that measures a diverse set of characteristics of stocks to identify and rank stocks based on:
* relative value, such as current and forecasted price-to-earnings ratios, yields, dividend discount models, and other price-sensitive data for a stock compared to its past, its peers, and the models' overall stock universe;
* momentum and sentiment, meaning measures that reflect the changes in short-term earnings outlook through factors such as revised earnings estimates and earnings surprises; and
* earnings quality measures, such as accruals compared to cash earnings, changes in inventory to sales ratio, and return on equity
Next, the fund's portfolio managers construct the portfolio through a risk controlled process, focusing on stock selection as opposed to making proactive decisions as to industry and sector exposure. The fund seeks to maintain a portfolio that has exposure to industries and market capitalizations that are generally similar to those of the S&P Midcap 400 Index. Finally, within each sector and style subset, the fund will seek to overweight the most attractive stocks and underweight or not hold the stocks that have been ranked least attractive.
Although not a principal investment strategy, the fund may, but is not required to, use derivatives, such as options, futures and options on futures (including those relating to stocks, indexes, foreign currencies and interest rates), forward contracts and swap agreements, as a substitute for investing directly in an underlying asset, to increase returns, or as part of a hedging strategy. The fund also may engage in short-selling, typically for hedging purposes, such as to limit exposure to a possible market decline in the value of its portfolio securities.
An investment in the fund is not a bank deposit. It is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency. It is not a complete investment program. The value of your investment in the fund will fluctuate, sometimes dramatically, which means you could lose money.
* Risks of stock investing. Stocks generally fluctuate more in value than bonds and may decline significantly over short time periods. There is the chance that stock prices overall will decline because stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and falling prices. The market value of a stock may decline due to general market conditions that are not related to the particular company, such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for corporate earnings, changes in interest or currency rates, or adverse investor sentiment generally. A security's market value also may decline because of factors that affect a particular industry, such as labor shortages or increased production costs and competitive conditions within an industry, or factors that affect a particular company, such as management performance, financial leverage, and reduced demand for the company's products or services.
* Small and midsize company risk. Small and midsize companies carry additional risks because the operating histories of these companies tend to be more limited, their earnings and revenues less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses), and their share prices more volatile than those of larger, more established companies. The shares of smaller companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger, more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the fund's ability to sell these securities. These companies may have limited product lines, markets or financial resources, or may depend on a limited management group. Some of the fund's investments will rise and fall based on investor perception rather than economic factors. Other investments are made in anticipation of future products, services or events whose delay or cancellation could cause the stock price to drop.
* Growth and value stock risk. By investing in a mix of growth and value companies, the fund assumes the risks of both. Investors often expect growth companies to increase their earnings at a certain rate. If these expectations are not met, investors can punish the stocks inordinately, even if earnings do increase. In addition, growth stocks may lack the dividend yield that may cushion stock prices in market downturns. Value stocks involve the risk that they may never reach their expected full market value, either because the market fails to recognize the stock's intrinsic worth, or the expected value was misgauged. They also may decline in price even though in theory they are already undervalued.
* Liquidity risk. When there is little or no active trading market for specific types of securities, it can become more difficult to sell the securities in a timely manner at or near their perceived value. In such a market, the value of such securities and the fund's share price may fall dramatically. Investments in foreign securities tend to have greater exposure to liquidity risk than domestic securities. Liquidity risk also exists when a particular derivative instrument is difficult to purchase or sell. If a derivative transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid (as is the case with many privately-negotiated derivatives), it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price.
In addition to the principal risks described above, the fund is subject to the following additional risks.
* Foreign investment risk. To the extent the fund invests in foreign securities, the fund's performance will be influenced by political, social and economic factors affecting investments in foreign issuers. Special risks associated with investments in foreign issuers include exposure to currency fluctuations, less liquidity, less developed or less efficient trading markets, lack of comprehensive company information, political and economic instability and differing auditing and legal standards. Investments denominated in foreign currencies are subject to the risk that such currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar and affect the value of these investments held by the fund.
* Derivatives risk. A small investment in derivatives could have a potentially large impact on the fund's performance. The use of derivatives involves risks different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the underlying assets. Derivatives can be highly volatile, illiquid and difficult to value, and there is the risk that changes in the value of a derivative held by the fund will not correlate with the underlying instruments or the fund's other investments. Derivative instruments, such as swap agreements and forward contracts, and over-the-counter options, also involve the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the failure of the counterparty to the derivative instruments to make required payments or otherwise comply with the derivative instruments' terms. Many of the regulatory protections afforded participants on organized exchanges for futures contracts and exchange-traded options, such as the performance guarantee of an exchange clearing house, are not available in connection with over-the-counter derivative transactions. Certain types of derivatives, including swap agreements, forward contracts, and other over-the-counter transactions, involve greater risks than the underlying obligations because, in addition to general market risks, they are subject to illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Because many derivatives have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative itself. Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. The fund may be required to segregate liquid assets, or otherwise cover its obligations, relating to the fund's transactions in derivatives. These requirements assume the obligation is for full payment of the value of the underlying instrument, in cash or by physical delivery, at the settlement date; thus, the fund must set aside liquid assets equal to such derivatives contract's full notional value (generally, the total numerical value of the asset underlying a derivatives contract at the time of valuation) while the positions are open. If the derivatives contract provides for periodic cash settlement during the term of the transaction or cash payment of the gain or loss under the transaction at the settlement date, the fund may segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to the fund's daily marked-to- market net obligation (i.e., the fund's daily net liability) under the contract, if any. By setting aside assets equal to only its net obligations, the fund may employ leverage to a greater extent than if the fund were required to segregate assets equal to the full notional value of such contracts. Future rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission may impact the fund's operations as described in this prospectus.
* Leverage risk. The use of leverage, such as engaging in reverse repurchase agreements, lending portfolio securities, entering into swap agreements, futures contracts or forward currency contracts and engaging in forward commitment transactions, may magnify the fund's gains or losses.
* Short sale risk. The fund may make short sales, which involves selling a security it does not own in anticipation that the security's price will decline. Short sales expose the fund to the risk that it will be required to buy the security sold short (also known as "covering" the short position) at a time when the security has appreciated in value, thus resulting in a loss to the fund.
* IPO risk. The prices of securities purchased in IPOs can be very volatile. The effect of IPOs on the fund's performance depends on a variety of factors, including the number of IPOs the fund invests in relative to the size of the fund and whether and to what extent a security purchased in an IPO appreciates or depreciates in value. As a fund's asset base increases, IPOs often have a diminished effect on such fund's performance.
* Other potential risks. The fund may lend its portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other financial institutions. In connection with such loans, the fund will receive collateral from the borrower equal to at least 100% of the value of loaned securities. If the borrower of the securities fails financially, there could be delays in recovering the loaned securities or exercising rights to the collateral.
Under adverse market conditions, the fund could invest some or all of its assets in U.S. Treasury securities and money market securities. Although the fund would do this for temporary defensive purposes, it could reduce the benefit from any upswing in the market. During such periods, the fund may not achieve its investment objective.
At times, the fund may engage in short-term trading, which could produce higher transaction costs and taxable distributions, and lower the fund's after-tax performance.
Investors should consider the investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses of the fund carefully before investing. Download a prospectus, or a summary prospectus, if available, that contains this and other information about the fund, and read it carefully before investing.